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The Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system is made up of a series of organs, unique to the females sitting within the pelvic cavity. As a whole, the organs work together with other systems of the body, such as the endocrine system, to ensure the functions of menstruation, conception, pregnancy and childbirth are attained. The female reproductive system can be categorized into two parts. Internal structures are contained in the first category. They include uterus, ovaries, the fallopian tubes, vagina and mammary glands. The second category contains external organs such as the labia majora, labia manora, vulva, Cowper’s glands and clitoris.

The uterus can be divided into three parts: the fundus, the body and the cervix, as well has three layers namely the perimetrium, endometrium and myometrium. The perimetrium is the outermost layer and it covers the urinary bladder and the rectum. Endometrium on the other hand can be further divided into two: the basal layer and the functional layer. The basal layer gives rise to the functional layer that is usually shed during the menstrual cycle. Additionally, the myometrium forms the middle layer consisting of muscle fibres. The uterus is responsible for hosting the developing fetus as well as produces uterine and vaginal secretions. The uterus also offers a channel through which sperms are passed to the fallopian tubes. The ovaries are essential in the production of female’s eggs (ovum). The vagina forms the link between the posterior and interior apparatus. The vagina joins to the external organs at the vulva; the vulva includes urethra, clitoris and the labia. In addition, the vagina joins to the uterus through the cervix and the uterus is attached to the ovaries through the fallopian tubes.

Upon the release of the ovum from the ovaries, the egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube prior to being implanted in the uterus. During the fertilization process, the egg secretes certain chemical which attract the sperm to it thus necessitating their fusion. Generally, fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes, which are also known as oviducts. However, in some instances, fertilization can take place in the uterus. The vagina offers the channel for the delivery of sperms and exit of the baby during birth and menstrual secretions. The vulva is a collection of external apparatus, which play different roles including the protection of the internal organs of the female reproductive system.



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